The World Bank has estimated that 300 million people in Africa have no access to clean water, while the International Water Management Institute has estimated that by 2025, 1.8 billion people will live in countries with absolute water scarcity.
Many of the regions facing water shortages are those with expanding economies and populations, such as the Middle East, South Africa, and China.
Existing water sources including rainfall and river runoff are already insufficient to meet the world’s needs for agriculture, drinking water, and industry. Demand is outstripping supply. Desalination of sea water will play a key role in closing the gap.